Communications of the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (ComBAO)
Volume 70, Issue 2, December 2023


Is the Andromeda galaxy approaching our galaxy Milky Way? 0.2 MB
H. A. Harutyunian, A. M. Grigoryan, Awni Khasawneh, A. A. Torosyan
Pages: 165-169
Abstract. No doubt that the dark energy carrier interacts with the baryonic matter. Due to this interaction some portions of energy are transferring gradually to all baryonic objects and their systems without any exception at all hierarchical levels of the baryonic world. The consequences of the energy transfer are quite dramatic for all objects. The most dramatic changes take place at the nuclear level. Objects of this particular level have the universal property of converting energy into mass, which ultimately affects the cosmic objects of all levels and the baryonic Universe as whole. Hear we consider the side effect of growing mass of nuclei. That is the inevitable blueshift of spectral lines of atoms possessing higher mass nuclei compared with the atoms having nuclei of lesser mass. We hypothesize here that the Andromeda galaxy spectral blueshift can be resulted by Doppler effect as accepted but due to the more advanced evolution compared with our galaxy but not by its approaching velocity.

Inertia I: The global MSp-SUSY induced uniform motion 0.6 MB
G. Ter-Kazarian
Pages: 170-187

Deformation of Special Relativity in ultra-high energy Astrophysics 0.4 MB
G. Ter-Kazarian
Pages: 188-203

Separation of Frequency Variables in the Problem of Diffuse Reflection from a Semi-Infinite Medium under Isotropic Scattering with a General Law of Radiation Redistribution by Frequencies 0.2 MB
H. V. Pikichyan
Pages: 204-211
Abstract. In the presented work, with the help of a new approach previously proposed by the author, the problem of diffuse reflection of radiation from a plane-parallel semi-infinite medium under isotropic scattering in the case of the general law of radiation redistribution by frequencies is solved. Resulting solution implements the possibility of separating a pair of independent variables (namely, the frequency and direction of the quantum) of entering the medium quanta from the same pair of exiting quanta. The advantage of this approach in relation to the known methods is that the separation of the explanatory variables is achieved without the need to solve the additional problem of separation or any special representation of the characteristics of a single act of scattering. Here, in an expanded form is sought namely the solution of the modified initial problem, instead of a preliminary decomposition of the characteristics of a single act of scattering. As a result, the unknown function of the four explanatory variables is expressed explicitly through a system of auxiliary functions that depend on only two variables. For this purpose, a problem for eigenvalues and eigenfunctions is formulated for a specially selected and previously unknown kernel. Bilateral relationships between the solutions of the new and traditionally used methods are obtained, which makes it possible to directly compare their accuracy and efficiency. The general scheme of the organization of calculations is also discussed.

Inertia II: The local induced inertia effects 0.5 MB
G. Ter-Kazarian
Pages: 212-234

Reflection of Radiation from a Plane-Parallel Half-Space in the Case of Redistribution of Radiation by Frequencies and Directions 0.2 MB
H. V. Pikichyan
Pages: 235-241
Abstract. The method introduced in the author’s two previous works is used to solve the problem of diffuse reflection from a semi-infinite plane-parallel scattering-absorbing medium in the general case of redistribution of radiation by frequencies and directions in an elementary act of scattering. A system of functional equations was obtained to determine the unknown eigenfunctions and eigenvalues. The initial problem of the six explanatory variables is explicitly expressed in terms of these eigenfunctions that depend only on three independent variables (dimensionless frequency, zenith angle, and azimuth).

The Pleiades flare stars in the Gaia era 0.6 MB
V. Hambaryan, S. Ghazaryan, L. Hambardzumyan, R. Neuhaeuser, A. Mirzoyan, K. P. Tsvetkova
Pages: 242-248
Abstract. We study the six-dimensional arrangement of flare stars in the Pleiades cluster region using the third release of the Gaia–mission (Gaia DR3) and we provide preliminary, a new, original view of the spatial configuration of the flare “star-members” of the cluster.

On The Astronomical Context of Fish-shaped Vishap Stone Stelae 0.4 MB
H. A. Malkhasyan
Pages: 249-259
Abstract. The work discusses the problems related to the celestial parallels of Fish-shaped Vishap (dragon) stone stelae. In particular, it is shown that these monuments are the material manifestations of the cult of the constellation Pisces Austrinus (the Southern Fish) and relate to the modern Pisces of zodiac only indirectly. At the same time, the well-known result of their dating by astronomical methods does not change qualitatively, but is more clarified, by placing about 18800 BC. Here, the coincidence of the heliacal rising of Fomalhaut (α Piscis Austrini) and the ancient Armenian Navasard holiday (beginning of the year, 4 days before summer solstice) is taken as the basis of the calculation.

Editorial Board
Pages: 260

Astronomical Surveys and Active Galaxies 0.7 MB
A. M. Mickaelian, H. V. Abrahamyan, G. M. Paronyan, G. A. Mikayelyan, R. R. Andreasyan, A. G. Sukiasyan, L. A. Hambardzumyan, V. K. Mkrtchyan, and A. A. Gasparyan
Pages: 261-276
Abstract. Astronomical Surveys are the main source for discoveries in astronomy. We are giving the most important parameters the significance of the surveys, their main products: images, photometric, spectroscopic and other data. Among the surveys, namely extragalactic ones, most important are those for Active Galaxies (both Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Starburst (SB) Galaxies), and particularly the AGN. These objects reveal many spatial and physical characteristics helping understanding the Universe. We give a brief review of our searches and studies for Active Galaxies.

Observational evidence of instability phenomena related to open star clusters based on Gaia data 0.3 MB
D. A. Kovaleva
Pages: 277-281
Abstract. The vast amount of high-quality astrometric and photometric data from Gaia space mission opened new prospects in the investigation of the population of galactic star clusters. In particular, a number of observational evidence have emerged in relation to the phenomena of instability that previously were mainly predicted by dynamical simulations. These are signs of former violent relaxation, ongoing tidal disruption, interaction between the clusters and results of disruption of the clusters. We discuss methods of discovery of such evidence along with some interesting examples.

Role of galactic disc thickness in magnetic field generation 0.8 MB
E. A. Mikhailov and M. V. Frolova
Pages: 282-286
Abstract. A large variety of galaxies have magnetic structures of lengthscales comparable with their radius. Theoretically, their existence is based on the dynamo mechanism. It is based on alpha-effect characterizing helicity of the turbulent motions and differential rotation which is connected with changing angular velocity. The field can be destroyed by turbulent diffusion, so the mechanism is threshold and can be realized only for the case when first and second effect are more intensive than the third one. Equations of magnetohydrodynamics that are used to describe the dynamo mechanism, are too difficult to be solved. So, usually different approximation taking into account details of astrophysical objects are used. As for galaxies, a thin disc approximation has been developed. It works properly for galactic objects with small half-thickness. However, as for thick discs we should take a model which uses more complicated structure of the field. Here we find the threshold for the field generation for thick astrophysical discs.

Activity phenomena in the baryonic universe as a result of interaction between baryonic objects and the carrier of dark energy 0.2 MB
H. A. Harutyunian
Pages: 287-291
Abstract. Non-stable phenomena are under consideration for rather long time. Mostly two issues seem to be very essential in connection with non-stability, namely, their role in the evolution of cosmic objects and the sources providing energy for non-stability manifestations. We argue here that the energy exchange with the dark energy carrier may be the main mechanism of energy providing. Backed by the contemporary ideas about the dark energy, we accept that this new-found energy homogeneously fills all space at all scales and interacts with cosmic objects belonging to all hierarchical levels. We argue that baryons mass is changeable quantity depending on the environmental physical conditions and therefore it is a subject of evolution as the objects of other hierarchical classes. Moreover, we argue in favour of new paradigm to be used for the further development of cosmology and cosmogony, which is not based on the a priory hypothesis by Kant and Laplace.

The role of environment on the formation of different FR type extragalactic radio sources 0.5 MB
R. R. Andreasyan, G. M. Paronyan, and A. G. Sukiasyan
Pages: 292-296
Abstract. We study the environment of nearby extragalactic radio sources of different morphological type from our sample. We chose 30 3C radio galaxies of different FR class for which we have several observational dates on wavelength from radio to X ray. For the study we select the regions with radius of 500 pc around of the parent galaxy of radio sources. We bring the optical maps of these regions that are overlaid on the radio maps and maps in all available wavelength. The preliminary review show that there are some differences in the neighboring regions around radio galaxies of different FR classes.

Infrared surveys to search for high proper motion stars 0.1 MB
E. D. Malik and O. Yu. Malkov
Pages: 297-301
Abstract. There are restrictions on the nature and characteristics of nearby brown dwarfs (including hypothetical component of the Sun), imposed by the current results of the work of the Gaia space observatory. In particular, even close brown dwarfs of spectral type Y3 and colder will go unnoticed by the Gaia observatory, although they may well be already included in infrared survey catalogues. Here we present information on modern infrared surveys, which can be used for a search for such objects.

Terrestrial complex for receiving information from small spacecrafts 0.3 MB
S. B. Makarov, S. V. Zavjalov, S. V. Volvenko, I. Lavrenyuk, M. Ya. Vinnichenko, A. K. Aharonyan, and V. H. Avetisyan
Pages: 302-305
Abstract. The work is devoted to the development of a terrestrial complex for receive and process information from small spacescrafts. The main requirement for these stations is their simplicity and maximum availability both in terms of cost and operating capabilities. Such stations provide a two-way exchange of information with spacecrafts in the frequency range 435-438 MHz, receive and process data transmitted in the VHF band by amateur and student satellites, and receive communications from the international space station crew and radio amateurs on Earth.

Unraveling the Origins and Development of the Galactic Disk through Metal-Poor Stars 0.3 MB
Maria Rah, Manolya Yatman, Ali Taani, Ahmad A. Abushattal, Mohammad K.Mardini
Pages: 306-309
Abstract. The Milky Way is a spiral galaxy comprising three main components: the Bulge, the Disk, and the Halo. Of particular interest is the Galactic disk, which holds a significant portion of the baryonic matter angular momentum and harbors at least two primary stellar populations: the thin and thick disks. Understanding the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk is crucial for comprehending the origins and development of our Galaxy. Stellar archaeology offers a means to probe the disk’s evolution by listening to the cosmological narratives of its oldest and most pristine stars, specifically the metal-poor stars. In this study, we employed accurate photometric metallicity estimates and Gaia Early Data Release 3 astrometry to curate a pure sample of the oldest Galactic stars. This proceeding presents a summary of our primary findings.

Identification of birth places of high-velocity stars: CepOB2 association 0.4 MB
S. Ghazaryan, L. Hambardzumyan, A. Grigoryan, K. Gigoyan, K.-U. Michel, V. Hambaryan, and R. Neuhaeuser
Pages: 310-315
Abstract. We have searched high-velocity stars (runaway, walk-away, pulsars, HMXBs and LMXBs), which could have, most probably, originated in the complex CepOB2 association, i.e. in the cores (small clusters or multiple stellar systems) of it. With the trace-back motion study of them we found at least two pairs consisting of a runaway star and pulsar, which were within stellar groups in the Cep OB2 association ∼ 1.5-5.5 Myr ago.

The influence of environmental effects on Type Ia Supernovae Standardization 0.8 MB
A. Yu. Baluta, M. V. Pruzhinskaya, P. Rosnet, and N. Pauna
Pages: 316-320
Abstract. Type Ia Supernovae (SNe Ia) are used as reliable cosmic distance indicators and their standardization is necessary for a more accurate measurement of the cosmological parameters of the Universe using the Hubble diagram. However, the Hubble diagram still shows intrinsic dispersion, potentially influenced by the supernova’s environment. In this study, we reproduce Hubble fit diagrams for the Pantheon supernovae data, and also investigate the possibility of introducing various standardization equations for supernovae that exploded in early- and late-type galaxies. We analyze 330 SNe Ia from the Pantheon cosmological sample to study how host galaxy morphology affects SN Ia standardization. We find that SNe Ia hosted by early-type galaxies have different standardization parameters compared to those hosted by late-type galaxies. We conclude that correcting for host galaxy morphology significantly impacts the accuracy of the Hubble diagram fit.

Building the Largest Sample of IR Galaxies. Preliminary Results 0.5 MB
G. A. Mikayelyan, A. M. Mickaelian, H. V. Abrahamyan, and G. M. Paronyan
Pages: 321-327
Abstract. To build the IRAS full extragalactic sample (including both point-like sources - QSOs, and extended ones - galaxies), we have applied several approaches. Cross-correlation of IRAS PSC/FSC Combined Catalogue with optical catalogues of already known galaxies, quasars and blazars such as The NGC 2000.0 Catalog, Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies, The Roma BZCAT, Astrometric Catalogue 5 and many others. Cross-correlation of IRAS PSC/FSC Combined Catalogue with optical catalogues giving data, which can be used to determine galaxy candidates, for example Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, contains data about point like and extended objects), The APM North Catalogue (contains data about ellipticity of objects), etc. Cross-correlation of IRAS PSC/FSC Combined Catalogue with GAIA DR3, which gives data about proper motions of objects (we can consider the objects having real proper motions as stars and exclude them from the sample). If all data show the same type of object, then we give it as a genuine one, and if there is an ambiguity, we give the most probable type with a flag. All this will lead to construction of a confident sample of optical counterparts of extragalactic objects of IRAS PSC/FSC: galaxies and quasars. We also will study IR/opt flux ratios, which may serve as one more characteristic to reveal galaxies with very high SFR. We will carry out calculation of IR luminosities for all IR galaxies. We expect revelation of many new ULIRGs and HLIRGs and building their largest samples.

BL Lacertae: Recovering intrinsic trajectory of a quasi-stationary jet feature on subparsec-scales 0.6 MB
L. A. Hambardzumyan, T. G. Arshakian, and A. B. Pushkarev
Pages: 328-334
Abstract. Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations allow us to investigate the fine structure and dynamics of the inner part of the BL Lacertae jet. Long-term VLBA monitoring at 15 GHz has revealed the existence of a quasi-stationary component (QSC) in the jet interior, located about 0.26 mas from the radio core, followed by superluminal moving radio components. The study of the QSC motion is important in order to shed light on the dynamics of the inner part of the relativistic jet on spatial scales of milliparsecs. The latter is problematic due to measurement errors on such scales. In addition, the apparent QSC motion is a combination of the intrinsic motion of the QSC and the radio core, which predominantly occurs in the direction of the jet axis. Careful error analyses and apparent trajectory smoothing techniques are important to reveal the QSC intrinsic motion. We use 164 epochs of VLBA monitoring of the jet in BL Lacertae, available as part of the MOJAVE program, to study the QSC motion. We apply a moving average method to filter out the core contribution, which allows the detection of QSC intrinsic motion and develop an algorithm to clean up the smoothed trajectory using QSC positioning errors. We find that the QSC intrinsic trajectory is a combination of irregular reversals occurring on scales from about 0.15 yr to 0.5 yr. An analysis of the estimates of the reversal characteristics is presented for smoothed and cleaned trajectories.

Application of small spacecraft for automatic identification of vessels 0.5 MB
S. B. Makarov, S. V. Zavjalov, S. V. Volvenko, I. Lavrenyuk, I. N. Gorbunov, M. Ya. Vinnichenko, A. K. Aharonyan, and V. H. Avetisyan
Pages: 335-337
Abstract. The work is devoted to the development of a specialized complex based on a CubeSat 3U nanosatellite for receiving and processing signals from the AIS system. With the help of such system, it is planned to form a domestic AIS space constellation. The urgency is connected with the current absence of the Russian Federation’s own satellite means of obtaining AIS data for monitoring the movement of ships in the world’s oceans and in its own water area. Access to this data is becoming critical in connection with the development of the Northern Sea Route and the development of shipping in the Azov, Black Seas and the Far East.

Kinematic structure of the stellar population of the solar neighborhood by Gaia DR3 0.3 MB
E. S. Postnikova, S. V. Vereshchagin, N. V. Chupina, and D. A. Mosunova
Pages: 338-343
Abstract. The data of modern catalogs allow us to consider in detail the issue of the spatial velocity distribution. The stars in the solar vicinity make it possible to avoid errors and draw detailed conclusions about their kinematics. For a corrected study, we took a sample of stars from the Gaia DR3 within 300 pc. This area contains a number of star clusters and streams. It was found that in the circumscribed vicinity the direction of the stars is divided into several vast concentrations, the apex of motion of which lies in the direction of the motion of the Sun and in the direction of motion of the Ursa Major group, which in turn is divided into two separate groups in direction in space. In addition, a group of stars is considered, which, according to their kinematic characteristics, most likely belong to a halo or bulge. High-velocity stars are also considered under the assumption of their nature.

Mid-infrared detectors for space electronics based on InAs-core/InP-shell nanowires 0.1 MB
M. Ya. Vinnichenko, R. V. Ustimenko, D. A. Karaulov, D. A. Firsov, V. V. Fedorov, A. M. Mozharov, D. A. Kirilenko, I. S. Mukhin, H. A. Sarkisyan, D. B. Hayrapetyan, and E. M. Kazaryan
Pages: 344-347
Abstract. The Mid-Infrared (MIR) spectral range is most important for free-space communications and astronomy. It contains radiation emitted by astrophysical objects during evolution of the planets, stars, galaxies and in particular by prebiosignature molecules on exoplanets. Nanowires (NWs) are expected to improve various optoelectronic devices, including IR photodetector technology. The bandgap of the catalystless InAs NWs can be tuned by introducing mechanical strain due to lattice mismatches in the core/shell NWs structures. Passivation with wider bandgap InP shell provide highly tunable functionality for future electronic devices. Temperature dependence of photoluminescence (PL) spectra of NWs InAs and InAs-core/InP-shell was acquired using Fourier-spectrometer. The position of the high-energy PL peak between calculated values of Eg for wurtzite and sphalerite structures confirms the formation of NWs into a combined polytype. Low energy PL peak is connected with parasitic bulk islands. Surface passivation successfully eliminates surface states and provides nontrivial temperature dependence of high-energy PL peak due to tensile and compressive strain in InAs core. Thus, detectors based on NWs InAs and InAs-core/InP-shell structures can operate in the MIR range of the spectrum with a wavelength from 2 to 5 μm.

The concept of the massive photon and its astrophysical implications 0.3 MB
G. A. Saiyan
Pages: 348-352
Abstract. We discuss the concept of the massive photon with its possible implications in astrophysics. We use the term ”mass equivalent” instead of relativistic or effective mass. We also analyzed modified Planck’s law and estimated (mean mass/rest mass) ratio in connection to the temperature of blackbody radiation of the massive photons. This ratio diverges at high temperatures and approaches unity at low temperatures. The ”mass equivalent” for the CMB radiation was estimated to be equal to 0.0468% of the total mass of the Universe. We have discussed importance of the Breit-Wheeler process of particle – antiparticle production in the early Universe. We have evaluated the upper limit of the rest mass of the photon using gravitational and cosmological redshifts. A correlation was found between estimated masses of the photon and the lowest/highest frequencies of the spectral bands used for estimation of the mass.

Discovery of new red stars with digitized plates of the μ Cephei range 0.3 MB
E. L. Karapetyan, K. S. Gigoyan, and G. R. Kostandyan
Pages: 353-354
Abstract. The results of the spectral classification of 357 red stars observed in the Cepheus region are presented. 257 of the featured stars are included in the KP2001 catalogue. We found the remaining 100 red stars as a result of digitizing plates used in compiling the KP2001 catalog. All star data is taken from the GAIA DR3 database. These stars are most likely giants and supergiants. None of them were included in the catalog of variable stars. It has been suggested that further research may reveal variability in many of these.

New M-type stars found in the BAO Plate Archive centered at α = +15h δ = +580 0.3 MB
G. R. Kostandyan and K. S. Gigoyan
Pages: 355-357
Abstract. The BAO Plate Archive low-resolution spectral plate centered at α = +15h δ = +580 is analyzed to find new late-type stars. 23 new late-type stars have been detected. New objects were cross-correlated with GAIA DR3, 2MASS, AllWISE, TESS and SDSS catalogues. For the detected objects, we present luminosity classes estimated from Gaia DR3 and 2MASS photometry and available proper motions. The majority of the objects are M dwarfs. Two objects are M giants.

Morphological Study of Active Galaxies based on SDSS Images. Preliminary Results 0.1 MB
V. K. Mkrtchyan, A. M. Mickaelian, H. V. Abrahamyan, G. A. Mikayelyan, and G. M. Paronyan
Pages: 358-360
Abstract. Activity in galaxies has mainly two major forms: Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Starburst (SB). Moreover, different types of AGN have different morphology. However, this question has not yet been properly investigated and due to old low-quality images, the morphology of many galaxies is not well described. SDSS images give a good possibility to homogeneously classify galaxies and investigate differences by the activity types. The concentration of the central part and the ratio between the central bulge and the total flux is a subject for detailed study. We use SDSS images to classify different types of active galaxies (both AGN and Starburst) and understand differences between QSOs, Seyferts 1 and 2, LINERS and Composites, as well as Starburst galaxies. The best expectation from our study will be the preliminary classification of active galaxies into activity types based on the images and before having their spectral types.

Analysis of the short wavelength range of QSOs 0.7 MB
A. G. Sukiasyan, A. M. Mickaelian, H. V. Abrahamyan, G. M. Paronyan, and G. A. Mikayelyan
Pages: 361-365
Abstract. In this work we try to classify objects using the MgII 2798 Å line from optical spectra. For that, we use BZQ type objects from BZCAT catalogue. From SDSS catalogues we have 618 BZQ objects which have optical spectra and only in 139 objects there are MgII and Hβ lines simultaneously (z=0.3345-1.0915). By the shape of MgII lines, we grouped these spectra into 3 categories: Broad & Narrow, Broad+Narrow, and Broad.